Dalai Lama-in Praise of GRT Compassion V0 HBOOK. Dalai Lama (UK: /ˈdælaɪ ˈlɑːmə/, US: /ˈdɑːlaɪ ˈlɑːmə/;[1][2] Standard Tibetan: .mw-parser-output .uchen{font-family:"BabelStone Tibetan Slim",Jomolhari,"Noto Sans Tibetan","Microsoft Himalaya",Kailash,"DDC Uchen","TCRC Youtso Unicode","Tibetan Machine Uni","Qomolangma-Uchen Sarchen","Qomolangma-Uchen Sarchung","Qomolangma-Uchen Suring","Qomolangma-Uchen Sutung","Qomolangma-Title","Qomolangma-Subtitle","DDC Rinzin","Qomolangma-Woodblock","Qomolangma-Dunhuang"}.mw-parser-output .ume{font-family:"Qomolangma-Betsu","Qomolangma-Chuyig","Qomolangma-Drutsa","Qomolangma-Edict","Qomolangma-Tsumachu","Qomolangma-Tsuring","Qomolangma-Tsutong","TibetanSambhotaYigchung","TibetanTsugRing","TibetanYigchung"}ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la'i bla ma [táːlɛː láma]) is a title given by the Tibetan people to the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest of the classical schools of Tibetan Buddhism. Their force sent to fetch Kelzang Gyatso however was intercepted and destroyed by Qing armies alerted by Lhazang. The 14th Dalai Lama was born on 6 July 1935 on a straw mat in a cowshed to a farmer's family in a remote part of Tibet. For Tibetan Buddhist historians however it was interpreted as the start of an era of independent rule of the Dalai Lamas, and of Qing patronage alongside that of the Mongols. [48], Gendun Gyatso died in 1542 and the lineage of Dalai Lama tulkus finally became firmly established when the third incarnation, Sonam Gyatso (1543–1588), came forth. Van Schaik 2011, p. 144; Shakabpa 1967, p. 150. According to Mullin, Smith and Shakabpa however, the 12th Dalai Lama's Regent, Reting Rinpoche, was deposed in 1862 in a coup by Gyalpo Shetra and Tibet was ruled by despots or assemblies of abbots and ministers for the next eleven years, that is until 1873 when the 12th Dalai Lama assumed power. [7] The traditional function of the Dalai Lama as an ecumenical figure, holding together disparate religious and regional groups, has been taken up by the present fourteenth Dalai Lama. [34] He was made abbot of Tashilhunpo[88] and stayed there teaching in Tsang for 9 months. They felt obliged to break with their own tradition and in 1487, the boy was renamed Gendun Gyatso and installed at Tashilhunpo as Gendun Drup's tulku, albeit informally. [251], The High Lamas used several ways in which they can increase the chances of finding a person they claim to be the reincarnation. "[27], According to the 14th Dalai Lama, long ago Avalokiteśvara had promised the Buddha to guide and protect the Tibetan people and in the late Middle Ages, his master plan to fulfill this promise was the stage-by-stage establishment of the Dalai Lama theocracy in Tibet. [134] Four other Desis were appointed after Depa Norbu: Trinle Gyatso, Lozang Tutop, Lozang Jinpa and Sangye Gyatso. [63] Through hard work he became a leading lama, known as 'Perfecter of the Monkhood', 'with a host of disciples'. He was enthroned as ruler of Tibet in 1855[220][221] following Xianfeng Emperor's order. He promised them he would be incarnated next in Mongolia, as a Mongolian. Furthermore, Mahayana Bu… He pretended the Dalai Lama was in retreat and ruled on his behalf, secretly selecting the 6th Dalai Lama and presenting him as someone else. In 1873, at the age of 20 "he suddenly became ill and passed away". August 2020 Thekchen Chöling, Dharamsala, HP, Indien – Seine Heiligkeit der Dalai Lama wurde von Mind Mingle eingeladen über … Sprache ... Heiligkeit der Dalai Lama hat an Herrn Shinzo Abe geschrieben, um seine Besorgnis über seinen sich verschlechternden Gesundheitszustand zum Ausdruck zu bringen. Puri, Bharati (2006) "Engaged Buddhism – The Dalai Lama's Worldview" New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2006. [193], Although the 8th Dalai Lama lived almost as long as the Seventh he was overshadowed by many contemporary lamas in terms of both religious and political accomplishment. [6] The Dalai Lama was an important figure of the Geluk tradition, which was politically and numerically dominant in Central Tibet, but his religious authority went beyond sectarian boundaries. [57] When eventually Tsongkhapa's successor the Panchen Lama Khedrup Je died, Gendun Drup became the leader of the Gelugpa. [32] Being the newest school, unlike the older schools the Gelugpa lacked an established network of Tibetan clan patronage and were thus more reliant on foreign patrons. [117], The Fourth Dalai Lama, Yonten Gyatso (1589–1617) was a Mongolian, the great-grandson of Altan Khan[119] who was a descendant of Kublai Khan and King of the Tümed Mongols who had already been converted to Buddhism by the Third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso (1543–1588). The Tibetans were soon appealing to the Kangxi Emperor to rid them of the Dzungars. [223][224], In 1868 Shetra's coup organiser, a semi-literate Ganden monk named Palden Dondrup, seized power by another coup and ruled as a cruel despot for three years, putting opponents to death by having them 'sewn into fresh animal skins and thrown in the river'. By then he had established a religious empire of such proportions that it was unsurprising the Emperor wanted to invite him and grant him a diploma. [250], If there are several possible claimed reincarnations, however, regents, eminent officials, monks at the Jokhang in Lhasa, and the Minister to Tibet have historically decided on the individual by putting the boys' names inside an urn and drawing one lot in public if it was too difficult to judge the reincarnation initially.[259]. The Kangxi Emperor also ordered Lha-bzang Khan to arrest the 6th Dalai Lama and send him to Beijing, the 6th Dalai Lama died when he was en route to Beijing. This method was used a few times for both positions during the 19th century, but eventually fell into disuse. The words of the diploma ran: "Proclamation, to let all the people of the western hemisphere know". open_in_new Link to source ; warning Request revision ; Bei der letzten Sitzung dieses Dialogs am 24./25. [120] Firstly, the Tsangpa dynasty, rulers of Central Tibet from Shigatse, supporters of the Karmapa school and rivals to the Gelugpa, forbade the search for his incarnation. [78][79] He was accorded all the loyalty and devotion that Gendun Drup had earned and the Gelug school remained as united as ever. [159], In 1708, in accordance with an indication given by the 6th Dalai Lama when quitting Lhasa a child called Kelzang Gyatso had been born at Lithang in eastern Tibet who was soon claimed by local Tibetans to be his incarnation. Since you enjoy such honor, you have to make efforts to promote self-cultivation, study and propagate Buddhism, also help me in promoting Buddhism and goodness of the previous generation of the Dalai Lama for the people, and also for the long life of our country"[194][193], The Dalai Lama, his later generations and the local government cherished both the jade seal of authority, and the jade sheets of authority. [35] He spent his winters in Lhasa, writing commentaries and the rest of the year travelling and teaching many thousands of monks and lay people. [163], In any case, the Kangxi Emperor took full advantage of having Kelzang Gyatso under Qing control at Kumbum after other Mongols from the Dzungar tribes led by Tsewang Rabtan who was related to his supposed ally Lhazang Khan, deceived and betrayed the latter by invading Tibet and capturing Lhasa in 1717. Welcome to Satis Shroff's FREIBURGER ZEITGEIST from the three country triangle: Germany, France and Switzerland. [91] Gendun Gyatso was promoted to abbot of Drepung in 1517[85] and that year Ringpung forces were forced to withdraw from Lhasa. It was the ambition and greed for power of Tibetans that led to five successive Dalai Lamas being subjected to continuous tutelage. Semester 2004 Reihe Programme der Ulmer Volkshochschule inklusive retrospektiver und zukünftiger Entwicklungen ausgehend von 2004 [35][86] By now widely regarded as one of Tibet's greatest saints and scholars[87] he was invited back to Tashilhunpo. Meanwhile, there were court intrigues and ongoing power struggles taking place between the various Lhasa factions, the Regent, the Kashag, the powerful nobles and the abbots and monks of the three great monasteries. [274] In response to the possibility that the PRC might attempt to choose his successor, the Dalai Lama said he would not be reborn in a country controlled by the People's Republic of China or any other country which is not free. There have been 14 recognised incarnations of the Dalai Lama: There has also been one non-recognised Dalai Lama, Ngawang Yeshe Gyatso, declared 28 June 1707, when he was 25 years old, by Lha-bzang Khan as the "true" 6th Dalai Lama – however, he was never accepted as such by the majority of the population. [184], According to Mullin, despite living through such violent times Kelzang Gyatso was perhaps 'the most spiritually learned and accomplished of any Dalai Lama', his written works comprising several hundred titles including 'some of Tibet's finest spiritual literary achievements'. [148], In the same year, 1674, the Dalai Lama, then at the height of his powers and conducting a foreign policy independent of the Qing, caused Mongol troops to occupy the border post of Dartsedo between Kham and Sichuan, further annoying the Kangxi Emperor who (according to Smith) already considered Tibet as part of the Qing Empire. [195], Nevertheless, Jamphel Gyatso was also said to possess all the signs of being the true incarnation of the Seventh. [118], For a lifetime of only 45 years, his accomplishments were impressive and some of the most important ones were due to his relationship with Altan Khan. In Lhasa, the unruly Dzungar not only failed to produce the boy but also went on the rampage, looting and destroying the holy places, abusing the populace, killing hundreds of Nyingma monks, causing chaos and bloodshed and turning their Tibetan allies against them. The Chinese were disappointed when he did not die like his predecessors, and he was to live long enough to give them much more cause for regret. [101] He ascribes the probable cause of these early deaths to negligence, foolishness and lack of proper medical knowledge and attention. [226] Shakabpa on the other hand, without citing sources, notes that Trinley Gyatso was influenced and manipulated by two close acquaintances who were subsequently accused of having a hand in his fatal illness and imprisoned, tortured and exiled as a result. [91] It was called the Ganden Phodrang, a name later adopted by the Tibetan Government,[34] and it served as home for Dalai Lamas until the Fifth moved to the Potala Palace in 1645. The Book of Kadam,[22] the compilation of Kadampa teachings largely composed around discussions between the Indian sage Atiśa (980–1054) and his Tibetan host and chief disciple Dromtönpa[23][24] and Tales of the Previous Incarnations of Arya Avalokiteśvara,[25] nominate as many as sixty persons prior to Gendun Drub who are enumerated as earlier incarnations of Avalokiteśvara and predecessors in the same lineage leading up to him. As a young bhikshu (monk) in the early 1950s he was actively engaged in the movement to renew Vietnamese Buddhism. Eines Wintermorgens, als sie gerade frühstückten, hörten sie den Nachrichtensprecher im Radio sagen: "Wir werden heute 8..10cm Schnee bekommen und möchten Sie daher bitten, ihren Wagen auf der Straßenseite mit den geraden Hausnummern zu parken, so dass der Schneepflug durchkommt. The 11th and 12th were each enthroned but died soon after being invested with power. [249], By the Himalayan tradition, phowa is the discipline that is believed to transfer the mindstream to the intended body. He said "I prefer the concept of a 'republic' in the People's Republic of China. [65], At the age of 50, he entered meditation retreat at Narthang. [156] At the same time, while this puppet 'Dalai Lama' had no political power, the Kangxi Emperor secured from Lhazang Khan in return for this support the promise of regular payments of tribute; this was the first time tribute had been paid to the Manchu by the Mongols in Tibet and the first overt acknowledgment of Qing supremacy over Mongol rule in Tibet. [56], In 1415 Gendun Drup met Tsongkhapa, founder of the Gelugpa school, and became his student; their meeting was of decisive historical and political significance as he was later to be known as the 1st Dalai Lama. Renamed Trinley Gyatso and enthroned in 1860 the boy underwent 13 years of intensive tutelage and training before stepping up to rule Tibet at the age of 17. Further he stated that Europe should receive, help and educate refugees but ultimately they should return to develop their home countries. At the request of the Ningxia Governor he had been teaching large gatherings of people from East Turkestan, Mongolia and nearby areas of China, with interpreters provided by the governor for each language. There are conflicting reports about whether the Chinese 'Golden Urn' was utilised by drawing lots to choose him. Ayurveda Health Center GmbH . The Tsemonling Regent[219] became mistrusted and was forcibly deposed, there were machinations, plots, beatings and kidnappings of ministers and so forth, resulting at last in the Panchen Lama being appointed as interim Regent to keep the peace. [146], The Fifth Dalai Lama's death in 1682 was kept secret for fifteen years by his regent Desi Sangye Gyatso. All Dalai Lamas from the 3rd on were found with the help of such visions granted to regents. In 1648, after quelling a rebellion of Tibetans of Kansu-Xining, the Qing invited the Fifth Dalai Lama to visit their court at Beijing since they wished to engender Tibetan influence in their dealings with the Mongols. [126] As a young man, being 22 years his junior, the Dalai Lama addressed him reverentially as "Zhalngo", meaning "the Presence". It was the first time a Dalai Lama had exercised such political authority. ", "Dalai Lama says Tibet wants to remain part of China", "We want to stay within China: His Holiness the Dalai Lama of Tibet", "Dalai Lama says 'Europe belongs to Europeans, "Exclusive: Dalai Lama contemplates Chinese gambit after his death", "Dalai Lama contemplates Chinese gambit after his death", "The Dalai Lama emphasizes that he does not support Tibetan independence and hopes to visit China as a Nobel Prize winner", "Dispatches from the Tibetan Front: Dharamshala, India,", "China's Tensions With Dalai Lama Spill into the Afterlife", "Dalai Lama's confirmation of reincarnation", "China Says It Will Decide Who the Dalai Lama Shall Be Reincarnated As", "China says boy picked by Dalai Lama now a college graduate", "Reincarnation of living Buddha needs gov't approval", "Dalai Lama challenges China – with a referendum on reincarnation", "Dalai's reincarnation will not be found under Chinese control", Dalai Lama may forgo death before reincarnation, A Reader's Guide to the Works of the Dalai Lama (Shambhala Publications), Jigdral Yeshe Dorje (2nd Dudjom Rinpoche), Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna, Self-immolation protests by Tibetans in China, Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet (1906), Treaty of friendship and alliance with Mongolia (1913), Sino-Indian Trade Agreement over Tibetan Border (1954), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dalai_Lama&oldid=997955363, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Standard Tibetan-language text, Articles with text in Mongolian languages, Articles containing Mongolian-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2017, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. Online. [203][204] Tibetan historian Nyima Gyaincain and Wang Jiawei point out that the 9th Dalai Lama was allowed to use the seal of authority given to the late 8th Dalai Lama by the Emperor of China[205], His second Regent Demo Tulku was the biographer of the 8th and 9th Dalai Lamas and though the 9th died at the age of 9 his biography is as lengthy as those of many of the early Dalai Lamas. His spiritual accomplishments brought him lavish donations from devotees which he used to build and furnish new monasteries, to print and distribute Buddhist texts and to maintain monks and meditators. Photo of the Dalai Lama courtesy of The Telegraph THE TELEGRAPH: Sexual intercourse provides but fleeting satisfaction, ... für Taiwan spioniert und geheime Informationen über den Gesundheitszustand von hochrangigen Politikern weitergegeben zu haben. (Richardson 1984, pp. (Norbu & Turnbull 1968)[b], According to Mullin, on the other hand, it is improbable that the Manchus would have murdered any of these four for being 'unmanageable' since it would have been in their best interests to have strong Dalai Lamas ruling in Lhasa, he argues, agreeing with Richardson that it was rather "the ambition and greed for power of Tibetans" that might have caused the Lamas' early deaths. 39 Montross LP, Depp C, Daly J, et al: Correlates of. Semester 1996/1997 Reihe Programme der Ulmer Volkshochschule inklusive retrospektiver und zukünftiger Entwicklungen ausgehend von 2004 [55] He studied Buddhist philosophy extensively and in 1405, ordained by Narthang's abbot, he took the name of Gendun Drup. Finally, from the Buddhist point of view, Mullin says, "Simply stated, these four Dalai Lamas died young because the world did not have enough good karma to deserve their presence".[199]. [178] Continuing Qing interference in Central Tibetan politics and religion incited an anti-Qing faction to quarrel with the Qing-sympathising Tibetan nobles in power in Lhasa, led by Kanchenas who was supported by Polhanas. [151], The Fifth Dalai Lama died in 1682. [110] At the second invitation, in 1577–78 Sonam Gyatso travelled 1,500 miles to Mongolia to see him. [197] He is also credited with the construction of the Norbulingka 'Summer Palace' started by his predecessor in Lhasa and with ordaining some ten thousand monks in his efforts to foster monasticism.[198]. eur-lex.europa.eu. [71] After Gendun Drup died, however, a boy called Sangyey Pel born to Nyngma adepts at Yolkar in Tsang,[34][72] declared himself at 3 to be "Gendun Drup" and asked to be 'taken home' to Tashilhunpo. [140], Güshi Khan died in 1655 and was succeeded by his descendants Dayan, Tenzin Dalai Khan and Tenzin Wangchuk Khan. [175], Having vanquished the Dzungars, the Qing army withdrew leaving the Seventh Dalai Lama as a political figurehead and only a Khalkha Mongol as the Qing amban or representative and a garrison in Lhasa. [139] In 1645, the Great Fifth began the construction of the Potala Palace in Lhasa. [60] Famed for his Buddhist scholarship he was also referred to as Panchen Gendun Drup, 'Panchen' being an honorary title designating 'great scholar'. [52] After completing his intensive studies at Narthang he left to continue at specialist monasteries in Central Tibet, his grounding at Narthang was revered among many he encountered. [142] The following year their forces approached Amdo on northern Tibet, causing the Oirat and Khoshut Mongols there to submit in 1647 and send tribute. The circumstances are such that it is very likely that some, if not all, were poisoned, either by loyal Tibetans for being Chinese-appointed impostors, or by the Chinese for not being properly manageable. [151] He also taught and travelled extensively, reshaped the politics of Central Asia, unified Tibet, conceived and constructed the Potala Palace and is remembered for establishing systems of national medical care and education. Throughout Gendun Gyatso's life, the Gelugpa were opposed and suppressed by older rivals, particularly the Karma Kagyu and their Ringpung clan patrons from Tsang, who felt threatened by their loss of influence. [255], It was here that in 1935, the Regent Reting Rinpoche claimed to have received a clear vision of three Tibetan letters and of a monastery with a jade-green and gold roof, and a house with turquoise roof tiles, which led to the indication of Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama. Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, all high monks must be approved by the government, "Relentless: The Dalai Lama's Heart of Steel", "At Lhasa, Tibetans still pray for Dalai Lama's return", "Introduction to The Potala Palace, Jokhang Temple and Norbulingka, Tibet", "The Second Tsemonling, Ngawang Jampel Tsultrim Gyatso", "The Dalai Lama, President Obama and Pope Francis at Highest Levels of Popularity in U.S. and Five Largest European Countries", "Dalai Lama Group Says It Got Money From C.I.A. “I have no doubt,” he wrote, “that as Speaker of the House, you will continue to play a crucial role in advancing the hopes and aspirations of the people of the United States, while also helping to shape a more peaceful and harmonious world.”. On his return in 1512, he was given the residence built for Gendun Drup, to be occupied later by the Panchen Lamas. For 113 years, therefore, supreme authority in Tibet was in the hands of a Lama Regent, except for about two years when a lay noble held office and for short periods of nominal rule by the 11th and 12th Dalai Lamas.

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